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A Creative History of the Russian Internet: Studies in Internet Creativity
VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG
2009
340 стр.
ISBN: 978-3639145595
Монография "Творческая история русского интернета: Исследования интернет-творчества" посвящена истории русского интернета как среды коллективного творчества. Автор стремится обнаружить внутреннюю логику эволюции творческих форм, намечает факторы этой эволюции и анализирует связь между интернет-творчеством и более широкими социокультурными контекстами. В монографии рассматриваются следующие теоретические вопросы: роль культурной идентичности и социального контекста как формирующая сила интернет-культуры; мотивация к творчеству; вклад пользователей, сотрудничество и отношение между индивидуальным и коллективным творчеством; оппозиция между официальным и неофициальным; вопросы цензуры и свободного высказывания. Эти проблемы обсуждаются на конкретных примерах (case studies): становление онлайновых СМИ, развитие жанра виртуальной личности, особенности русского сообщества в LiveJournal (Живом Журнале) и история сайта "Анекдоты из России". Монография будет полезной для исследователей и пользователей интернета, специалистов по теориям творчества и всех, кто интересуется современной русской культурой.

Eugene Gorny. A Creative History of the Russian Internet: Studies in Internet Creativity.
VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft & Co. KG, 2009. 340 pages.
ISBN-10: 3639145593
ISBN-13: 978-3639145595


Creativity theories have not been much used in Internet research. This study attempts to compensate for this omission by applying concepts and methods of creativity research to the study of Internet culture. It seeks to discover the internal logic of the development of creative forms, to identify the factors that account for change and to analyse the relationship between Internet creativity and wider sociocultural contexts. The concept of Internet creativity is applied to the study of the history of the Russian Internet. Case studies are devoted to the development of online media, an artistic genre, an online community and a humorous web site. The theoretical issues include the role of cultural identity and social context as a shaping force of Internet culture; motivation for creativity; user contribution, collaboration and the interplay between personal and collective creativity; the opposition between the official and the non-official spheres; issues of censorship and free speech. The study will be useful to creativity theorists, Internet producers, or anyone interested in contemporary Russian culture.



CONTENTS


Chapter 1. Introduction.
    1.1. Background to the research
    1.2 Research problem and research questions
    1.3 Justification for the research
    1.4 Methodology
    1.5 Outline of the thesis
    1.6. Definition and discussion of terms
      1.6.1 The Internet
      1.6.2 Internet culture
      1.6.3 Creativity
      1.6.4 Internet creativity
      1.6.5 The Russian Internet
      1.6.6 History
    1.7 Delineation of the research problem and key assumptions
    1.8 Scope and delimitations of the study
    1.9 Expected results
    1.10 Conclusion
Chapter 2. Literature Review: Internet creativity research
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Concepts and theories of creativity research
      2.2.1 The creative process
      2.2.2 The creative person
      2.2.3 The creative product
      2.2.4 The creative environment
      2.2.5 Theoretical approaches of creativity
    2.3 Creativity in post-industrial society
    2.4 The Internet as a domain of creativity
    2.5 Histories of the Internet
      2.5.1 Internet as a collective creation
      2.5.2 Technological histories
      2.5.3 Intellectual and cultural histories
    2.6 Actors of Internet creativity
      2.6.1 Typologies
      2.6.2 Internet heroes
      2.6.3 Collective creativity
    2.7 Forms of Internet creativity
    2.7.1 Hypertext and hypermedia
    2.7.2 Internet art
    2.7.3 Internet activism
      2.8 Conclusion
Chapter 3. Methodology
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Theoretical framework
    3.3 Methodological framework
    3.4 Research methods
      3.4.1 Internet studies
      3.4.2 Ethnography
      3.4.3 History
    3.5 Research stages
      3.5.1 Grounded theory framework
      3.5.2 Literature review
      3.5.3 Data collection
      3.5.4 Data selection
      3.5.5 Types of data
      3.5.6 Data management
      3.5.7 Critique of the sources
      3.5.8 Data analysis
    3.6 Conclusion
Chapter 4. Russian online media
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Historical background
      4.2.1 Information policy in the Soviet Union
      4.2.2 The ?poque of Glasnost
      4.2.3 Media-political capitalism
      4.2.4 Back to centralization and state control
    4.3 The development of Russian online media
      4.3.1 Early uses of the Internet as media
      4.3.2 The Evening Internet: Creating the audience
      4.3.3 Zhurnal.ru: The rise of the Russian net community
      4.3.4 Russian Journal: Discussion forum for intellectual ?lites
      4.3.5 RBC: Earning money on providing free news
      4.3.6 Gazeta.Ru: Winning a mass audience
      4.3.7 Lenta.ru and Vesti.ru: Two models of online media
      4.3.8 MeMoNet: Towards total media
      4.3.9 Strana.ru: The state as a content provider
      4.3.10 Summary
    4.4 Models of interpretation: Samizdat, kitchen-table talks and the public sphere
    4.5 Conclusion
Chapter 5. The virtual persona as a creative genre on the Russian Internet
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Virtual personae on the Russian Internet
    5. 3. Virtual personae on Usenet
      5.3.1 Vulis: squealing sorcery
      5.3.2 "Teneta": net literature and the virtual persona
    5.4. Virtuals on the WWW
      5.4.1 Muxin: a virtual with a human face
      5.4.2 Paravozov: the spirit of the server
      5.4.3 Katya Detkina: a girl with a passport
      5.4.4 Mary Shelley: Reflection on the nature of virtuality
      5.4.5 Robot Dacjuk: the de-personalisation of the author
      5.4.6 Dialogue forms: forums and guestrooms
      5.4.7 Namnyjaz Ashuratova: systems of self-identification
      5.4.8 Essays in self-knowledge
      5.4.9 Crisis of genre
    5.5 Virtuals on the Live Journal
    5.6 Conclusion
Chapter 6. Russian Live Journal: The impact of cultural identity on the development of a virtual community
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 LiveJournal
    6.3 Russian LiveJournal (RLJ)
      6.3.1 RLJ as a deviation
      6.3.2 Explanation of the deviation
      6.3.3 Summary
    6.4 Agency
      6.4.1 Users
      6.4.2 Friends
      6.4.3 Communities
    6.5 Language
    6.6 Dynamics of RLJ
      6.6.1 Introduction
      6.6.2 Conception
      6.6.3 Propaganda and Recruiting
      6.6.4 Unification
      6.6.5 Differentiation
      6.6.5 Breakdown?
      6.6.6 Conclusion
    6.7 National, international and transnational on RLJ
    6.8 Conclusions
Chapter 7. Folklore in the age of the Internet: Jokes from Russia
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Online humour and Russian cultute
    7.3. Terminology conventions
    7.4 The idea of Jokes
    7.5 The history of Jokes
    7.6 From collecting the old to creating the new
    7.7 The sources of jokes
    7.8 Jokes and stories
    7.9 Users' participation and collaboration
    7.10 Creator's motivation and character traits
    7.11 Individual and collective creativity
    7.11 Conclusion
Chapter 8. Conclusions
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Conclusions about research questions
      8.2.1 Internet as a domain of creativity
      8.2.2 How is Internet creativity distributed among users and who are the actors of creativity on the Russian Internet?
      8.2.3 What is the correlation between individual and collective creativity on the Russian Internet?
      8.2.4 Which historical and cultural factors have influenced creative production on the Russian Internet?
    8.3 Conclusions about the research problem
    8.4 Implications for further research
    8.5 Implications for theory
References



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